Tag Archives: eye tracking

Merck Showcase – Eye tracking, Values, and Navigating Controversy #IIeX 

Live notetaking at the #IIeX conference in Atlanta. Any errors or bad jokes are my own.
Unlocking consumer insights: Navigating controversy using behavioural sciences to change  the conversation by Lee Carter  and Lisa Courtade

  • Crises are always around us, there is no time to think, we’re always under pressure to think and act immediately
  • It’s never been more difficult to be heard. If you don’t tell the story, someone else will. And they might tell it negatively. 
  • Just because you are right does not mean people will believe you. And often, the facts just don’t matter.
  • We’re always on the defensive. Our attempts to correct the record fail. 
  • Crises are emotional and our messages should be emotional as well. We must engage people before we can persuade them.
  • Just because the message makes US feel better doesn’t mean it’s the right message
  • Impact – how personal and emotional is the impact, what are the priorities that are impacted. What is the impact of healthcare, the soda tax to me personally.
  • Values – what beliefs and fears does the issue raise, what underplaying moral foundation is at play. 
  • Language – what language and rhetoric is being and could be used to address the issue
  • Show people you understand why they are upset, show you want the same things they want, show you’re doing something about it, show there’s always room for improvement
  • This can’t take 18 days like it did for United Air, that hurt the entire airlin industry not just them
  • Messaging is rarely prepared in advance. This slows our response time which is damaging. 
  • We need to be in hero mode, not react mode.

Unlocking insight to foster innovation: a values link journey by Andy Ford and Steve Schafer, Brado Creative Insight

  • Learning interesting things is not insight – insight is fresh intimate understanding that has the power to genuinely change behaviour 
  • “I never knew I always wanted this” this is insight. You can only get to insight with empathy.
  • Need to understand values first so take the time to truly understand the consumer, interview theme to understand who they are and WHY they think what they think
  • How does KFC become a breakfast destination? [I am totally open to chicken and waffles 🙂 ]
  • There are key drivers for breakfast – “my time”. The “first bite” needs to be familiar flavours, smells, and textures, a multi sensory experience to set the tone for the rest of the day. 
  • Consumers want a craveable first bite of breakfast but it still has to be familiar. [I think these people are way more into breakfast than I am. Wow.]

Unlocking attention: how eye tracking is boldly going where no market researchers have gone before by Mike Bartels, Tobii Pro

  • Eye trackers used to be stationary and invasive. Now, they’re just a pair of glasses.
  • Why study visual attention – 50% of all neural tissue is related to vision
  • Eye tracking applies to attention in the workplace, training and skill transfer, fatigue and workload analysis, efficiently and error reduction [this is huge for air traffic control and other high stress jobs that have people’s lives on the line]
  • Use eye tracking along with augmented reality so you can test visibility of retail locations
  • You can learn how much people are actually reading messaging or just taking note of the messaging
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Behavioural Science Measurement #IIeX 

Live note taking at the #IIeX conference in atlanta. Any errors or bad jokes are my own.  
How the classic fairy tale inspired the mobile ad strategy by Vuk Pavlovic, True Impact (Winner of Best New Speaker at #IIeX Europe)

  • What are good guys? Give to others, honest, helpful, kind, polite. What are bad guys? Uninvited, rude, inconsiderate, force their will, vain, self-serving. Which of these reflects your brand?
  • Brands need to humanize the customer and not treat them like eyeballs with a screen. The mobile environment is personal, their own social network, with their friends, in their bedroom. We need better relationships with brands that are this close to us. 
  • Ads need to be seen – attention, be relevant – receptivity, and be chosen.
  • They tested ads during games. The ads were presented only when they person actively stopped the game to get help.
  • Ads viewed during a more convenient time got more view time, more cognitive engagement
  • People ignore pop=up ads but they do pay attention to ads that play at a convenient time. These ads also perform better after the game is finished.
  • Ads viewed by choice get a 40 second view compared to 9 seconds for interrupting ads. Heatmaps show people are less likely to be looking for the X Close button
  • Annoying ads have more engagement and motivation because they are seeking the X Close button
  • Need to consider the person on the other end of the phone. Don’t force them to change the rotation of their phone. If their phone is vertical, then play the ad vertical.

How Home Depot is optimizing the shopper experience by Dan Braker (Brakethrough research) and Brendan Baby (Home Depot)

  • Inverted pyramid – customer sits at the top of the pyramid, front line associates, field support, corporate support, CEO
  • Use a blend of in store eye tracking, qualitative shop alongs, exit surveys, employee interviews and more to give nagivation behaviours, reasons for behaviours,, experience metrics, operational issues, concept screening
  • Asked shoppers on arrival at the store if they would do their shopping trip with eye tracking glasses. Measure area of interest, time in the area of interest, count of shoppers touching or holding a product, time touching or holding a product.
  • Path tracking watches the path they walked through the store, where do people spend much more or less time, is it due to interest or confusion
  • Can measure pupil dilation for engagement measures, can also measure voice pitch analysis if they talk or ask questions
  • Don’t overlook the employees in your research, they know how shoppers navigate, when shoppers need help
  • Need to use emerging and raditional approaches to maximize learnings
  • Changes to store elements should be thoroughly tested before roll out

Leveraging Artificial Intelligence to do Real-time fan research during NASCAR’s biggest race by Brooks Denton (NASCAR) and Andrew Konya (Remesh)

  • Time with friends, cooking and eating, arguments about strategy, social media, ad consumption all together equals the experience
  • Asked a set of questions throughout the race, like a live bulletin board, to collect qualitaive data. Choose a few responses that best reflect the full range of responses and match those with segments and demographics
  •  Build a distribution of opinion for each answer, create a consensus for each answer 
  • Sometimes they show the live responses to people answering the questions to increase engagement and other times they don’t show the other resposnses to maintain research rigour
  • Viewers want split screen commercials, the data proves this and now they can bring that data to the broadcast partners 

The automation of behavioural science by Aaron Reid (Sentient Decision Science)

  • Some associates are hard wired (attractive person, babies) or learned (police cars, spiders)
  • Can you differentiate fear of spiders and spiders using sweat in the hand, do you sweat more for one or the other
  • Automation is a major trend in survey design, push button question types and dashboard reporting, full study design is becoming automated, tracking analysis is automated, regression analysis can be automated [I really hope that a person monitors all of these things because humans creating data are not robots]
  • STICKY does eye tracking online not in the lab, it may not be great right now but we improve so quickly that it’s worth it to get in early
  • We need to automate the science so that cientists can wok on theory, discussion, ideas not button pushing. This gives us time to work on the importat parts. Gives you time to increase empathy for people and brands.

https://vimeo.com/207500225

Co-creating the future #IIeX #MRX 

Live note taking from #IIeX in amsterdam. Any errors or bad jokes are my own.

Using insight and analytics to steer change in an organization by Melissa Gill, Credit Suisse

  • The five stages of grief – you show us things we don’t we to hear, you make us question our sense of purpose, create a sense of loss for ourselves and our team, people go through denial as they read the results, it takes a while to accept the final results
  • Mission statements are a call to action, be part of the change, have clear direction, creating a vision is less functional
  • Define the problem you want to solve next year, create a team to act on a critical issue, don’t make people boil the ocean, get value this year so you can create a budget for next year
  • Assess the ideal situation, work requires part of a person not a whole person and it’s expensive, find out where the data is, where the expertise is within your company
  • Plan for a win, get results in 6 to 9 months minimum, don’t demonstrate technical competition yet, demonstrate value for the business within the budget timeframe
  • Solve your mission problem with incremental wins
  • Communicate, don’t communicate your wins or learning, also communicate what you can do better, help other people see other areas where they can contribute or add to your success
  • Create the right environment, who is the lead – the CRO, CEO, or someone else, the spehere of influence is quite broad
  • Its better to focus on learning how to improve things rather than asking questions that reflect your KPIs

Made you look! Using eye-tracking to see digital advertsing in a new way by Colin Deller and Maria Sealey, AIMIA

  • 46% of impressions are not viewable, this costs 1.6 billion pounds per year for UK companies
  • What do people actually look at online, do they look at native as much as display advertising
  • Infra-red eye tracking technology is available
  • Eye tracking showed that people weren’t pay much attention to a text ad, indexed it to a penguin ad and you could see much more attention paid to the image ad versus the text ad, more people viewed, for longer time
  • Only 35% of ads we purchase are viewed by people, only 9% of people look at them for more than one second
  • This is low in comparison to traditional ads, press gets more views because there is no load time and it’s viewed longer, 40% look at the ads for more than one second, 2.2 seconds average for print
  • But you cant just lift the print ad and use it is a a digital ad
  • Ads aren’t always immediately viewable and sometimes they switch to a different ad immediately
  • Viewable does not mean its being viewed
  • Think like.a poster not like direct mail
  • User cost per view, not cost per thousand

FinTech and Disruptive Innovation in Financial Services by Anthony Michelini, Citigroup

  • Citigroup is over 200 years old
  • Ingenuity has been art of their DNA 
  • Banking isnt just credit cards, it’s advising, investments, money transfers, bill payments
  • The bank is the hub of people’s money but there our spokes coming out of it
  • Half of millennials are already using financial tech solutions, 60% are happy with it, two thirds will use more going forward
  • Only half of millennials would be happy if they only had financial tech, but the trend is similar for older people, B2B are the furthest behind but still want digital
  • We can’t be all things to all people
  • Six markers of progress makers – optimistic, driven, resilient, future focus, worldly outlook, generosity of spirit
  • These come from motivations as people and how they view their lives, not just how they use banks
  • They use communities, advisory boards, innovation labs around the world

What We (Don’t) Learn From Eye Tracking by Jennifer Romano Bergstrom, Facebook, @romanocog

Live note taking from the UXPA webinar. Any errors are my own.

  • Traditional user experience UX measures – first click accuracy, task accuracy, time to complete tasks, click patterns, conversation rates
  • Self report measures include difficulty ratings, satisfaction ratings, think aloud protocols, debriefing interview
  • But these use a filter, people can think about what they want to share with us, includes biases, people feel they are being tested and evaluated, people feel bad if they can’t do what they think you want them to do
  • Implicit methods can offer a lot
  • Eye tracking, EDA (sweat, electrodermal activity), behavioral analysis (eye rolling), verbalization analysis (negative words even though they’re saying something in a positive way “I’m not upset”), pupil dilation
  • We can learn HOW people navifate, WHY they focus, and what, how long, and how often they focus on things, the combination of methods is more accurate, do not use eye tracking in isolation
  • When to use eye tracking? Do people see things that aid in task completion? Look patterns including location, duration, and path, intended visual hierarchy vs actual look pattern, evaluates user experience
  • Eye tracking assesses engagement – desirability, accessibility, trustworthy, useful, valuable, usable
  • Engagement – Number of fixations, Processing – fixation durations, findability – time to first fixation, processing order – gaze path, comprehension – repeat fixations, workload excitement – pupil dilation
  • Heat map of one person isn’t useful, need to average across many people
  • Red usually means more attention, gaze opacity maps are interesting as they present in white and gray so you see more clearly what people are looking at, gaze plots work better for one or two people, side by side gaze plots are better or use a heat map
  • Use eye tracking over time to see if changes to design improved findability
  • What sample size is needed? No good answer [what about until the data stops changing?]
  • Have used it qualitatively, no assumptions like everyone looks at left more in design A, Live broadcast the eye tracking to stake holders, small samples are ok
  • Heat maps show a lot of differences when averaging across different groups of 8 people, you can’t make assumptions about these 8 people for another group of people; gets a bit cleaner with 15 people but there’s still variation, increasing it to 30 generates a lot more clarity [ah yes, the academic literature states that 30 is the bare minimum for averages]
  • Can compare eye tracking of new users and experienced users, experienced users go directly to what they need
  • Use eye tracking to prepare better paper diaries, how do people understand the questionnaire design, is the questionnaire too complicated, people wouldn’t put pen to paper for a long time, realized people wanted to write down the name of the TV show first, not the time and channel of the show
  • People do not read dense text, if something is confusing you can’t just add more text to make it easier, use bulleted lists, bold headings, pare text down, people want to accomplish a task and we need to help them do that
  • People read pages with questions on them differently than other pages, they skip a lot of instructions but they try to process the questions
  • People instantly jump over instructions and go directly to trying to answer the questions, repeat fixations before interacting indicates confusing, moving back and forth and back and forth trying to figure out what to do
  • People attend to the username and password no matter what else is on a page, if there is something people must read, it needs to be treated differently, put in a location where you know people are reading it
  • Compare attentions to icons and motivational language, do people see the logos, sometimes learn people understand the old-fashioned version more because they are used to it
  • Can evaluate age-related differences, older people gravitated to the center, read more of the left side of the screen, didn’t focus on the right side of the screen which would have helped them
  • People consume mobile content much more quickly, scan down the right side of the screen and barely look at the left
  • Can compare websites e.g. Facebook vs Instagram formatting
  • Modern eye tracking – can use overhead tracking, device under a book, eyeglasses, attached to a monitor
  • Mobile device stand – non-invasive stand that doesn’t get in the way of the participant, but it’s not a natural way to hold it, poor tracking quality, and where do you put the camera, hand can get in the way of the camera
  • Glasses require something on your face, it can be dizzying for live feed watching
  • Don’t sit next to the participants because they want to talk to you while they do it, ideal is in a different room but you can simply put a big cardboard barrier in front
  • Does not work well – consider attention and gaze
  • when attention and gaze are on the screen – answering your email on the screen, eye tracking works well
  • If they need to go get information elsewhere, sometimes gaze and attention will be off the screen but at times will both also be on the screen, this will also work fine
  • When attention are gaze are in different places – hmmm…. Let me think about that, I need to figure something out, or listening to someone but looking elsewhere – this won’t work well if they are thinking about something else while looking at your product, worse case scenario

Nonconscious Impact Measurement #IIeX 

Live note taking at #IIeX in Atlanta. Any errors or bad jokes are my own

The politics of emotion and reason by Aaron Reid

  • Some ads saw Bernie decrease his positives and Hillary decrease her negatives
  • During election years, people remember new products much less, it’s usually 60% but in those years it’s 30%; how do you touch people in those years – things like puppy monkey baby help 
  • 40 million online plays, 750 000 social actions, 6% of share of Super Bowl social ads, women less likely to like, millenial males loved it
  • How do you measure nonconscious associations – millisecond timing of swipes on a computer screen can be used
  • When implicit is added to measurements, social contagion correlations increase a lot from .3 to .6 has been seen
  • Implicit measures captures something unique
  • Predicting sales volumes of tables to cereal to soda, have seen r square go up to .9


An insights introspective: einstein’s definition of insanity and the future of consumer insight by Randy Adis and Andrew Baron

  • Problem solving requires new approaches, what should we be doing differently
  • Most companies are traditional market researchers or business contributors, only 10% are strategic insights or insights as so competitive advantage companies; we are still order takers
  • We used to have bigger teams and more funding but now smaller teams are asked to do more work
  • We used to get the time we needed and now everything is a fire
  • We used to have control over our funding but now MR reports to marketing and the CMO who determine our priorities 
  • Now we’re asked to know many kinds of research
  • Clients expect to do more data analytics, data integration, digital ad optimization, customer experience, path to purchase, digital focus groups
  • Small data is the new big data, big data train has been running for a while and we are losing touch with our consumers
  • Prediction without why means you are less likely to be able to repeat things
  • If you don’t like change, you’ll like irrelevance a lot less
  • Now we must be a scientist/sleuth, marketer who understands the problems, salesperson who can overcome inertia, champion/advocate to institutionalize something in an organization, strategist to help marketers figure out what to do with insights, brand steward
  • Humans are not fully conscious of their decisions, most often we think system 1 fast, law of least effort
  • People are accustomed to having an answer for thing seven if they don’t know the answer
  • Are you doing enough semiotics, ethnography, neuroscience (fmri, eeg), biometrics, predictive markets, implicit tests, metaphor elicitation – add a picture of a brain scan to anythign and believe ar Elmore likely to believe it


Future of advertising is the brain – why branded content’s success will be driven by neuroscience by Kevin Keane

  • 500 million people block mobile ads, 80% want to skip TV commercials, 80% mute online video
  • [my thoughts if anyone cares, if they put only one or two ads on a page I wouldn’t care. Bunches of videos flashing in my face like confetti R simply scream download an ad blocker]
  • Branded content is ready to take over
  • In 1860s wine companies sponsored theatre shows and stars
  • John Oliver went to town on native advertising recently {I’ll have to find that!}
  • Projected to grow to 25 billion in just a few years, hard to say where it is now or where it will be but it will be huge growth
  • More advertisers are turning into publishers
  • Content marketing is the only marketing left – Seth godin
  • Best branded content always provides value by understanding the user’s need and addresses those needs
  • Execution is a separate issue – can do meaningless content like Wayne’s World holding a Pepsi in front of his face or CocaCola on American Idol
  • The Achilles heel is measurement
  • Advertisers want to connect with consumers but need proof of that connection
  • Publishers need to grow audiences not alienate them and they need ad money
  • Consumers have near infinite amount of choice, competition for attention is fierce, hello facebook!
  • Enter neuroscience
  • Cools light wanted lots of brand on screen, TSN didn’t want so much bran on screen to be more authentic – what is the right way to do it
  • Best sports had the brand elements on screen, need to integrate the brand meaningfully, branded content outperformed, authentic stuff works a lot better
  • RBC did a 20 episode content where the didn’t reveal the brand until the 12th episode – double digit improvements
  • Brands were too nervous to move forward with a new paradigm without seeing neuroscience data


Strategic brand meaning management: aligning associations, metaphors and emotions for enduring brand relationships by Anders Bengtsson and Roberto Cymrot

  • We buy brands for what they mean not just waht they do
  • The worlds most successful brands manage brand meaning
  • CocaCola is moving to a single brand advertising for efficiencies, Coke Zero is ten years old and this could be risky for them to lose ads that are simply Coke Zero ads
  • Respondents need only a few minutes, can be done on mobile, pose a question like consider a person who drives this brand, select an image that describes that person, then ask people to describe the image and interpret the image
  • From it see emotions, personality traits, associations, attributes
  • Let’s them see functional attributes that trigger emotions
  • Can leverage the imagery in image clouds
  • Mercedes gets images of horse, golf clubs, mansions, a certain type of old money status, country club, classic people, established 
  • BMB gets mountain climbing, socializing, adventurous, roller coaster, a certain type of new money and a different type of person altogether – Bsuiness people, urban professional, young and successful, confidence entrepreneur 

Eye Tracking in Survey Research #AAPOR 

Moderator: Aaron Maitland, Westat; Discussant: Jennifer Romano Bergstrom, Facebook 

Evaluating Grid Questions for 4th Graders; Aaron Maitland, Westat

  • Used to study cognitive processing
  • Does processing of questions change over the survey period
  • 15 items, 5 content areas about learning, school, tech in school, self-esteem
  • 15 single items and 9 grid items
  • Grid questions are not more difficult, only first grid takes extra consideration//fixation
  • Double negatives have much longer fixation, so did difficult words
  • Expressed no preference for one type of question


Use of Eye-tracking to Measure Response Burden; Ting Yan, Westat Douglas Williams, Westat

  • Normally consider length of interview, or number of questions or page; but these aren’t really burden
  • Attitudes are a second option, interest, importance, but that’s also not burden; Could ask people if they are tired or bored
  • Pupil dilation is a potential measure, check while they recall from memory, pay close attention, thinking hard, these things are small and involuntary; related to memory load
  • 20 participants, 8 minute survey, 34 target questions, attitude and behavioural questions, some hard or easy
  • Asked self reported burden on 4 items – how hard is this items, how much effort did it take to answer this
  • Measured pupil diameter at each fixation, base diameters differ by person, they used dilation instead, used over a base measure, percentage over a base, average dilation and peak dilation
  • Dilation greater for hard questions, peak 50% larger for hard questions, statistically significant though raw number seems very small
  • Could see breakoffs on the questions with more dilation 
  • Sometimes not consistent with breakoffs
  • Self report did correlate with dilation 
  • Can see people fixate on question many times and go back and forth from question to answer
  • Question stems caused more fixation for hard questions 
  • Eye tracking removes bias of self report, more robust
  • Can we use this to identify people who are experiencing too much burden [imagine using this during an interview, you could find out which candidates were having difficult answering questions]



The Effects of Pictorial vs. Verbal Examples on Survey Responses; Hanyu Sun, Westat; Jonas Bertling, Educational Testing Service Debby Almonte, Educational Testing Service

  • Survey about food, asked people how much they eat of each item
  • Shows visual or verbal examples 
  • Measured mean fixation
  • Mean fixation higher for pictorial in all cases, more time on pictures than the task, Think it’s harder when people see the pictures [i’d suggest the picture created a limiting view of the product rather than a general view of ‘butter’ which makes interpretations more difficult]
  • No differences in the answers
  • Fixation times suggests a learning curve for the questions, easier over time
  • Pictorial requires more effort to respond 


Respondent Processing of Rating Scales and the Scale Direction Effect; Andrew Caporaso, Westat

  • Some people suggest never using a vertical scale
  • Fixation – is pausing
  • Saccades – is the rapid movement between pausing
  • Respondents don’t always want to tell you they’re having trouble
  • 34 questions, random assignment of scale direction
  • Scale directions didn’t matter much at all
  • There may be a small primacy effect with a longer scale, lower education may be more susceptible 
  • Fixations decreased over time
  • Top of scale gets most attention, bottom gets the least [so, people figuring out what the scale it, you don’t need to read all five options once you know what the first one particuarly for an agreement scale. Where people can guess all the answers from the first answer. ]

Radical Market Research Idea #7: Participate in an untrusted methodology #MRX

If you get right down to it, I’m a quant. My history is with surveys and quantitative social media research. I have little experience with focus groups or neuroscience or eye tracking or many other respected and mistrusted methodologies. I can criticize the heck out of any of them but then, it really wouldn’t be fair.

But market researchers love to criticize. That’s what the test control design is set up to do. Prove and disprove based on logic and facts. So we criticize methodologies we aren’t familiar with even when we don’t have the facts. Are you one of the people who’s lambasted focus groups for their lack of generalizability? Have you laughed neursocience studies off the stage for their hocus pocus?

If you’ve never participated in a focus group, commission one now. Participate in the sampling, help write the discussion guide, help lead a group, help write up the results. See for yourself the good and bad that can come from it. Compare the results with those that come from the good and bad of the method you’re most familiar with. Learn something new. Try something new for once. Radical?

 

My Tobii demo, I FINALLY get to try eyetracking! #TMRE #MRX

If you follow my tweets at all, you know I’ve been itching to try out some eyetracking software. Tobii finally gave me the chance to do that at the TMRE. Below are two videos. The first is me watching the commercial, kindly filmed by the Tobii folks. The second is the result of my viewing where you can see what my eyeballs focused on as I watched the commercial. Very neat stuff!

What do people look at on store shelves? On magazine ads? On car dashboards? In the candy store? On the shelf of 18 pies…. Wait… It’s lunch time 🙂

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